Eight business models of the hottest Internet of t

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IOT has eight business models and multiple centers to lead the industry in the future. There is no doubt that like the Internet in those years, IOT has also become an irresistible trend of the times. IOT has gone deep into the fields of smart electricity, smart home, smart transportation, smart logistics, smart medicine and other fields, integrated into the development process of today's society, improved human life to a certain extent, and changed the face of the world. However, we must see that the development of IOT is far from as rapid as we originally expected. Experts and scholars have pointed out more than once that there are still many bottlenecks in the current development of IOT, and the lack of an effective business model is undoubtedly a very key point

at present, the academic and Industry Research on IOT business model is still in a very early stage. According to the primary and secondary subordination between the parties involved in the business model and the different subjects of customer value creation, we can divide the IOT business model that may exist at present and in the future into the following eight types:

first, operator led: in this business model, Telecom operators occupy a dominant position, and operators are the main force in the development and promotion of businesses, as well as the construction and maintenance of platforms. Specifically, it can be further divided into three sub models: the network connection mode directly provided by operators, the cooperative development and promotion mode of operators, and the independent development and promotion mode of operators. The mode of direct network connection provided by operators refers to that telecom operators directly provide channel services to enterprise customers using M2M services, rather than through system integrators or other service providers. The cooperative development and promotion mode of operators is the cooperation between operators and system integrators, which is the development business of up and down travel safety device integrators. Telecom operators are responsible for business platform construction, network operation, business promotion and charging. Generally speaking, telecom operators still dominate this mode. The independent development and promotion mode of operators, that is, all self-supporting mode of operators, means that telecom operators build their own platform to develop business and directly provide it to customers. Among the three sub modes, the cooperative development and promotion mode of operators is the mainstream mode for domestic telecom operators to enter the market at present. For example, China Mobile and China Telecom cooperate with leading system integrators in the industry, and operators promote industrial application products to customers. The independent development and promotion mode of operators requires high initial investment of operating enterprises, so few enterprises adopt this mode. At present, there is no case that operators independently build platforms and develop businesses and then directly provide them to customers in China

the operator led business model is mainly applicable to enterprise customers, mainly for acquisition and positioning applications, with a wide range of applications, which can be specifically applied to environmental protection monitoring, automatic water and electricity meter copying, intelligent parking lot, elevator monitoring, logistics monitoring, intelligent transportation and other fields

second, it is dominated by the system integrator with thinner recycled materials: the system integrator rents the network of the credit operator and provides services to users through the overall scheme and the channel; From the perspective of operators, that is, operators provide network connection services to customers indirectly through system integrators. This is the business model used more at present. Because IOT applications are implemented internally by individuals in special industries, and the characteristics of enterprise specialization are obvious, professional system integrators in the industry are required to provide services, especially in industries with high industry barriers and complex application requirements. Such system integrators are generally third-party enterprises with strong software and hardware development and integration capabilities, and have a high position in the industry. In this kind of business model, system integrators are mainly beneficiaries and income distributors. The technical level is the core of this kind of business model. The main applicable users are enterprise customers. The actual application type is mainly collection. Due to the characteristics of non subjectivity and short-range network of operators, its application scope should be real-time data collection and detection in fixed area space, which can be specifically applied to environmental protection monitoring, automatic water and electricity meter copying, intelligent parking lot, elevator monitoring, vending machine, etc

third, software and hardware integrators dominate (iPhone mold waste plastic particles 1 are in short supply): in this mode, powerful software and hardware integrators form a comprehensive individual led ecosystem by integrating their advantages in the field of hardware manufacturing or software development, such as creating an application software development platform, cooperating with operators and software developers, so as to explore and even create new profit points, Drive the development of the whole IOT industry. This model mainly comes from Apple's iPhone business model. Through cooperation with operators, Apple has not only shared more than 30% of the relevant revenue of operators, but also successfully promoted the majority of application developers to develop applications of various types and prices for the system through intelligent terminal system IOS and application store app store. In this way, while selling hardware, it also opened up a new profit point of application download, which has achieved great success in the mobile Internet market. Domestically, there are relatively few IOT software and hardware integrators, mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, and they do not have the ability to dominate the IOT industrial chain. Therefore, there is no precedent for this business model in China, but I believe that in the coming years, China may also urge apple in the field of biolink

this kind of business model is applicable to the convenience and control fields related to the individual user market. By developing relevant industry application downloads on the existing intelligent terminal system or the proprietary IOT terminal that may appear in the future, users can choose and use IOT software platforms and applications that meet their own needs, and create a new IOT system ecological environment at the same time

fourth, software content integrator led: this kind of business model mainly refers to Google's Android business model. Similar to the iPhone model, this kind of business model requires integrators and operators to cooperate to develop corresponding software and application platforms, and also requires the participation of a large number of application developers and advertisers. Compared with the iPhone model, the core of its system is the software content integrator, and the hardware manufacturer is the main type of cooperation. At the same time, the integrator has more resources and greater dominance in content, and the advertising effect is more concentrated

this kind of business model is a successful case of Google in mobile Internet. The difference from Apple's model is that its success depends on the strong software development ability of enterprises such as Google and the generation, integration and search ability of content. In the application of IOT, with the embodiment of the achievements of Technological Development in various stages and the improvement of the importance of content, the application scope of this kind of business model has been further expanded. The core of its application to measure displacement (i.e. the relative displacement of the upper and lower collets) through digital circuits is the combination of software and content and its introduction to the market. From the perspective of application types, all kinds of applications can be involved, and the main determinant of their success is the development cycle. Representative applications are location services, intelligent logistics, smart home, digital city and smart campus, especially in the application of content led detail industry

fifth, government led: this kind of business model is generally built by public utilities such as the government. Customers rent or buy platforms and related software and hardware products, and pay related communication costs. In this mode, GPS vehicle positioning and video monitoring are the most used applications, and communication operators may also build relevant public platforms. This kind of business model is the most direct embodiment of the application of IOT, which can run through all stages of the development of IOT. The government plays a key role in it, and it is very important to grasp the technology and market; At the same time, in the early stage of development, the necessary capital investment is also indispensable. In the early stage of IOT development, this kind of business model can be used as the main policy promotion model facing the market, and the main public utility platforms are built in this kind of model, which can allow users to experience the application of IOT for free at the cost of the government, which is conducive to cultivating users' relevant use habits and laying the foundation for other types of business promotion in the IOT industry

sixth, user led: in this mode, customers bear all the costs of the IOT platform and the construction of the entire service system. In this kind of business model, users are the only core, and other system individuals play a supporting role. Generally speaking, users in this kind of industry are relatively strong. IOT applications in this mode generally have privacy requirements, and have high security requirements for information perception and transmission, so it is difficult to expand across industries. Typical applications include power monitoring in the power industry, hydrological monitoring in the water conservancy industry, phenological monitoring in meteorology, pollution source monitoring in the environmental protection industry, chemical product monitoring, traffic road condition monitoring, etc

seventh, cooperative operation: cooperative business model refers to the cooperation of two or more participants in the industrial chain. Equipment providers, operators, system integrators, software developers, etc. form an industrial alliance from their respective interests to jointly develop and promote IOT business on the premise of equality and mutual benefit. Typical examples are operators, joint system integrators, cooperative development and cooperative promotion. For example, Norwegian mobile operator Telenor cooperates with telit to provide M2M services. This business model is applicable to all types of IOT business

eighth, cloud aggregation: cloud aggregation is a network business model based on cloud computing, focusing on user service, integrating internal and external resources for the target market according to the existing operation platform and business capabilities, and forming users, businesses, and other market participants to jointly create value. Its main feature is that under a certain security mechanism, it forms a comprehensive and free flow of information, and realizes the high-speed value-added through a large number of rapid information transmission. Each subject attracts user resources and creates value through continuous input-output activities

in the future application of IOT, the boundaries between various individuals may tend to be blurred, and some strong individuals may assume multiple roles in the system and become the so-called ecological leaders; Some small enterprises can still take advantage of the gap growth space left by large enterprises to explore potential single market demand points and become stronger in a franchise field. In this way, a mechanism of integrity, mutual benefit and symbiosis similar to the ecosystem is formed, and the system maintains strong vitality in the continuous renewal and individual replacement. This kind of business model is one of the ideal models for the development of IOT in the future, and it is also the premise and foundation for it to truly form an integrated network that covers every corner of life

the author believes that on the whole, the business model of IOT has a trend of changing from a single center to a multi center, from a single subject creating value to a diversified subject creating value together. The domestic IOT industry has just started, and its business model is not yet mature. Because operators have the advantages of economic strength and user group scale, the current IOT industry is mainly dominated by operators. Domestic operators even claimed that their M2M business is the whole of the so-called IOT. However, with the development of IOT related technology and application

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